Olympus Mons – Highest peak of the Solar System

Mars - Mariner 9 (1971 - 1972)Martian volcano - photographed by Viking 1 spacecraft - 5000 miles away - 14.02.1979Olympus Mons - Mars - MC-2 - Diacria RegionOlympus Mons - Image from Viking 1 orbiter

Olympus Mons – Highest peak of the Solar System

Olympus Mons – An extinct volcano on the Red Planet, rises almost 22 km! However, the issue of measurement is contentious. So depending on where we measure the vertex. It can grow up to 26 km.

Its diameter is also impressive – at the base it is 624 km.

The volcanic crater itself is about 85 km long, 60 km wide, and up to 3 km deep. However, future Martian climbers will not be particularly delighted. Because Olympus has a gentle, 5-degree slope.

Impressive sizes can also boast:

Rheasilvia, huge impact crater with a diameter of 505 km. Covering up to 90% of the West’s asteroid surface (22.5 km high).
Series of almost even peaks on the Saturn’s moonIapetus, (approx. 20 km). And South Boösaule, the highest hill on Jupiter’s moon – Io (approx. 18 km).

Pitch drop – The longest laboratory experiment

University of Queensland - AustraliaUniversity of Queensland - ExperimentPitch drop experiment with demarcation of yearsPitch drop experiment with demarcation of years and monthsPitch drop experiment - Chart of months between drops (1938 - 2014)

Pitch drop – The longest laboratory experiment

Pitch drop – Prof. Thomas Parnell from the Australian University of Queensland wanted to show students that some substances, although they appear to be constant. In fact, they are very viscous liquids. He poured hot tar into the glass, sealed funnel . More precisely the so-called coal tar, which is forming by distillation of tar. He waited three years and opened the funnel.
The tar began to flow down at such a slow pace that only after a few years a drop formed at the end of the funnel. After a decade, it broke away and fell into the dish. This has happened nine times since 1927.

The last drop fell in 2014, another should fall in about nine years.

Pitch drop experiment conducted in Australia in 2005 got Ig Nobel. Project recognized as the longest-lasting laboratory experiment. It went to the “Guinness Book of Records”. They can even be viewed using a webcam (broadcasts are monitored by several hundred people a day).

Space probe Voyager 1 – Duration and range record

Voyager1 - Space simulatorSpace probe Voyager 1 - digital recorderSpace probe Voyager 1 - Reencapsulated 27.08.1977Voyager 1 - Spacecraft modelHeliopause - Graphic - 11.08.2011Space probe Voyager 1 - Transitional regions

Space probe Voyager 1 – Duration and range record

Space probe Voyager 1 – It’s so far from Earth that it sends out radio signals. They need 20 hours to reach us. This is a record not only in terms of duration, but also coverage. The Voyager 1 probe, launched in 1977, is currently the furthest sent object made by our civilization.

In 2012 passed the so-called heliopause.

The area where the solar wind pressure becomes less than the interstellar wind pressure. Thus leaving the solar system. More importantly, the probe is still working and sending data. Its plutonium battery should ensure operation at least until 2025.

Even then, Voyager 1 will fly ahead.

Although it moves at a huge speed of over 60,000 km / h. If we measure it in relation to the position of the sun. Only for 30 thousand years will pass the Oort cloud – the furthest cluster of matter gravitationally connected to the solar system. He will leave us for good, heading toward the constellation Ophiuchus.

HeLa cell cultures – Cellular biology record

HeLa cell cultures - Multiphoton fluorescence image of HeLa cellsHeLa cell cultures - Multiphoton fluorescence image of HeLa cells with cytoskeletal microtubules and DNAHeLa cell - Scanning electron micrographHeLa cell cultures - 6.10.2015HeLa cells stained


HeLa cells - Scanning electron micrograph of just divided cellsMulticolor fluorescence image of living HeLa cell - 1.10.2014Multicolor fluorescence image of living HeLa cells - 1.10.2014HeLa cells - 27.11.2011Multiphoton fluorescence image of HeLa cells

HeLa cell cultures – Cellular biology record

HeLa cell cultures – They are the record of cellular biology. They have been used by scientists around the world for nearly seven decades. They come from Henrietta Lacks, a patient who died of cervical cancer in 1951. Cancer cells that were taken from without her consent and knowledge. George Otto Gey, a researcher at Johns Hopkins Hospital, examined them.
He discovered that cells divide extremely efficiently and do not die.
Science had no such material at its disposal before.

Immortal cells are used to research new drugs and vaccines.

They were sent into space (to check if low gravity would damage human tissues) and helped in gene mapping. It is estimated that all HeLa cells that have been produced in laboratories weigh a few dozen thousand tons in total.
Much more than Henrietta Lacks, who has almost been forgotten for many decades.