Andre-Marie Ampere – Thoughtful and versatile scientist
Andre-Marie Ampere – (1775 – 1836) – The ancestor of electrodynamics did not go to primary school, his father taught him alone. Ampere sent his first scientific work to the Lyon Academy of Sciences (Academie de Lyon) at the age of 13! A quiet life and urgent studies were interrupted when his father was guillotined in 1793 for the Jacobin dictatorship. Eighteen-year-old Ampere has suffered this trauma. After the period of mourning, he returned to science and spiritual work. He was interested in mathematics and physics as well as in philosophy, botany, chemistry, as well as Latin, Italian and Greek.
Son Jean-Jacques Ampere (1800 – 1864) after his father’s death finished his work. Which was to classify the sciences –
Sketches from the philosophy of science, or an analytic representation of the general classification of all human knowledge
But his greatest merit is description of magnetism and subsequent establishment of the theory of electromagnetic phenomena as the basis of electrodynamics. He also created the first magnetic coil, which became the basis for the later telegraph.
At the age of 22, he began to teach mathematics in Lyon and later became a professor of chemistry and physics. For nineteen years he taught at the Polytechnique in Paris. During his lifetime he belonged to many scientific societies and he was also appreciated abroad. Unfortunately, his financial situation did not reflect merit. He often lacked money for experiments, which delayed his work.
He spent most of his life traveling, while on one of them in Marseilles, on June 10, 1836, he died. On the gravestone, according to his wishes, engraved: Tandem felix – Finally happy.
CME – Coronal mass ejection – Eruptions on the Sun
CME – Coronal mass ejection – Every second the Sun emits around two million tons of particulate matter – or at least that’s usually the case. In the atmosphere, however, sometimes there are enormous eruptions from the corona (Coronal Mass Eruptions, CME). These types of hurricanes are among the most spectacular phenomena in our part universe . In the process, the Sun loses much more weight than usual. The speed of winds reaches even 10 million / h. CME is a cloud of gas built of electrically charged particles (physicists call it plasma gas). Plasma hurricanes can reach Earth and call the so-called geomagnetic storms that affect electronic devices, causing short circuits and equipment damage.
It is impossible to predict how dangerous it can be for satellites. The Internet and computer-controlled objects, such as nuclear power plants. The last really strong solar storm took place in the telegraph age, i.e. long before the appearance of PCs. Although astronomers are constantly observing the behavior of the Sun, they can anticipate it only slightly ahead of time. This means that in the future we will have at least 24 hours to disable all sensitive systems (even those in nuclear power plants) and secure computers. But geomagnetic storms are not the only problem facing us by the most important star …
ALMA – Atacama Large Millimeter Array
ALMA – Atacama Large Millimeter Array – 5000 meters above sea level in the Atacama Desert in Chile. So in one of the driest places in our globe. Also one of the least friendly places on our planet. Especially Chajnantor plateau. Here, in northern Chile, the temperature can drop from 20 degrees Celsius to -20 at night. A strong wind rages over the infertile, red-shining plateau, lashing sharp rocks and few bushes that survive here. The air contains half as much oxygen as at sea level. Humidity is almost zero, which makes the atmosphere more transparent. What penetrates from space, reaches the plateau almost unfiltered. Thanks to this, the Atacama desert is the Mecca of astronomers.
The largest radio telescope in the world was created on it. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, a device with revolutionary design. Scientists can reach extremely cold and dark areas in the universe for the first time. Thanks to this network of radio telescopes, specialists are even able to penetrate the impenetrable nebulae. In this way, discover the stars that were created shortly after the Big Bang.
Sixty-six ALMA antennas were mounted in the base at a height of 3000 meters and trucks were transported to the plateau. There they were set with millimeter precision. After their launch and connection, a receiver with an area of approx. 16 km² was created.