KEPLER-442b – Stony exoplanet in superearth class

KEPLER-442bKEPLER-442b - Comparison of exoplanets from the Kepler system to EarthKEPLER-442b

KEPLER-442b – Stony exoplanet in superearth class

KEPLER-442b – Stony exoplanet in superearth class, which the parent star is the orange dwarf.

ESI: 0,84
Size: 1,3 Earth
Mass: 2,3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -65°C

The planet KEPLER-442b, from which light has been running for 1115 years, belongs to the so-called Super-Earth. In this way, rocky exoplanets are determined whose mass does not exceed tenfolds Earth. The parent star of this planet is an orange dwarf. The star larger than a red dwarf, but smaller than a yellow dwarf, which is the Sun. This type of star has calmer youth, and therefore does not send its planetary children too much UV. In addition, the planet is in the ecosphere, so it can not be ruled out that the ocean is splashing on its rocky surface. If it has a more complex atmosphere, it does not have to be at the same time a kingdom of cold. According to some calculations, it is the smaller superearth that are most suitable for life, even more than our own planet.

GJ 273b – Exoplanet in the constellation Little Dog

GJ 273b - Artist’s impression of the exoplanet

GJ 273b – Exoplanet in the constellation Little Dog

GJ 273b – Planet orbiting the Luyten star

ESI: 0,86
Size: 1,47 Earth
Mass: 3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -6°C

Twelve light-years from our solar system, Luyten’s star, the red dwarf, wanders from Earth in the constellation Little Dog. Astronomers have discovered two exoplanets next to it. At the same time one of them belongs to the superearth category and at the same time circulates at the edge of the ecosystem. In contrast to the many other planets whose parent star is a red dwarf, GJ273b knows what day is and what is the night. Usually, the planets move close enough that their rotation is connected, and their parent star only puts one hemisphere.

Ross-128b – 11 light years away from Earth

Ross-128b
Ross-128b

Ross-128b – 11 light years away from Earth

Ross-128b – The planetary system around the red dwarf Ross 128 for about 70,000 years will become our closest star neighbor.

ESI: 0,86
Size: 1,2 Earth
Mass: 1,3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: 7°C

Even closer than the GJ 273b is the Ross-128b exoplanet. It is away from us, just like a star. Which is a very quiet red dwarf, less than 11 light-years away and gradually approaching us. Based on the obtained data, astronomers have discovered that planet Ross 128b circulates around its star twenty times closer than Earth circulates the Sun. Despite such a short distance, the planet gets only 1.38 times more energy than our planet. Thanks to the cool and stable star, whose surface temperature in comparison with the sun is halved, the equivalent temperature on its surface is estimated to be from -60°C to 20°C.

TRAPPIST-1d – Representative of TRAPPIST-1 sys

TRAPPIST-1d - Artistic impression of exoplanetTRAPPIST-1d - Statistics tableTRAPPIST-1d - Comparison of the sizes of TRAPPIST-1 planets with Solar System bodies

TRAPPIST-1d – Representative of TRAPPIST-1 sys

TRAPPIST-1d – One of representatives of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary system

ESI: 0,91
Size: 0,8 Earth
Mass: 0,3 Earth
Equivalent temperature: 15°C

The relatively small weight of this planet indicates that its surface can be flooded by a deep ocean.
According to some speculations, here is 250 times more water than in the Earth’s oceans.
The first measurements showed that the planet is moving outside of the living zone, but now it seems that it will enter it safely. Exoplanet can boast a dense atmosphere and is so close to its star that it circulates in four days. It only drops by 4.3% more light than on Earth. Although TRAPPIST-1d circulates its star in synchronous rotation, a dense atmosphere in which there should be a lot of water vapor helps in thermal exchange. The difference between the illuminated and the dark hemisphere is not like that of other celestial bodies.

TRAPPIST-1e – Exoplanet from system TRAPPIST-1

TRAPPIST-1eTRAPPIST-1e - Planetary system orbitsTRAPPIST-1e

TRAPPIST-1e – Exoplanet from system TRAPPIST-1

TRAPPIST-1e – The stony exoplanet of the TRAPPIST-1 system, according to physical properties, is the “e” from the planetary system TRAPPIST is the most similar to Earth.

ESI: 0,85
Size: 0,9 Earth
Mass: 0,8 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -22°C

It moves in the middle of the ecosystem of the entire collection, but there is the least water here. TRAPPIST-1e has a smaller size than Earth, but it has a larger mass. Possible inhabitants would have to be smaller in height and more important to cope with the pressure of local gravity. Red dwarfs, to which the TRAPPIST-1 star belongs, do not emit as much light and heat as the Sun. This means that the ecosphere, in which liquid water can sustain in proper conditions, is located in much closer orbits than in our solar system. A year on the planet TRAPPIST-1e lasts six ordinary earth days.
The planet probably also has a compact atmosphere where hydrogen is lacking. This type of atmosphere can also be found on the rocky planets of our solar system. Hydrogen is also a greenhouse gas, if it was a large amount in the local atmosphere, the surface of the planet would be uninhabitable.

TRAPPIST-1f – Rocky exoplanet the size of Earth

TRAPPIST-1f - Artistic impression of exoplanetTRAPPIST-1f - Comparison of the data of the stony planets of the TRAPPIST-1 system with the planets of the solar systemTRAPPIST-1f - Planetary system around the red dwarf TRAPPIST-1

TRAPPIST-1f – Rocky exoplanet the size of Earth

TRAPPIST-1f – Rocky exoplanet, from the planetary system around red dwarf TRAPPIST-1

ESI: 0,68
Size: 1,1 Earth
Mass: 0,9 Earth
Equivalent temperature: -65°C

Around the star, 40 light-years away from us, are seven stony planets. The sixth in turn has very similar sizes to Earth. But its density is generally lower. The composition is close to the ice or water worlds of the moon Jupiter – Europe or the moon of Saturn – Enceladus. The first measurements determined that not a small part of the mass of the planet is ice, and that under the surface perhaps liquid water. The atmosphere here is not the densest, so the equivalent temperature probably does not differ from the proper one.

Intelligent lighting system – Infrared cameras and lasers

Intelligent lighting system - Mercedes-Benz Intelligent Light SystemIntelligent lighting system - Mercedes-Benz W176 Intelligent Light System

Intelligent lighting system – Infrared cameras and lasers

Intelligent lighting system – Cars that see at night. In winter, when the day is very short, the role of lights and the so-called Night driving assistants (image analysis of the thermal imaging camera allows you to mark on the screen, for example, animals or pedestrians) is obvious. In Mercedes, the intelligent ILS system with adaptive bi-xenon headlamps automatically adapts to weather, light and road conditions, including fog. Audi, in turn, uses long-range laser spotlights – the range reaches even several hundred meters in optimal conditions.

In the latest Maybach, so-called digital lights. The beam is reflected in them from the matrix composed of a million miniature mirrors. Two headlights allow – at least theoretically – to create a HD resolution image on a roadway. They not only better illuminate the road, but also improve the visibility of lanes or pedestrian crossings. They can also display pictograms of relevant signs directly on the asphalt. What does it give? On the asphalt, for example, a snowflake can be shown to warn others of the risk of slipping. The headlights communicate with the navigation. They match the lighting level of the road to what is currently located on it – cars, pedestrians, motorcyclists and of course corners and hills.

Active drive control – Faster overcome the bend

Active drive control - Subaru Levorg tuned - Motor Show Osaka, Japan (2015)Active drive control - Subaru Levorg 2.0GT EyeSight VMGActive drive control - Subaru Levorg 2.0GT EyeSight VMG front

Active drive control – Faster overcome the bend

Active drive control – Active Torque Vectoring, or active torque control. It allows the internal wheels to be braked in the bend, while transferring the “moment injection” to the outer wheels. As a result, the car performs more efficiently and the driver has better control over it. The Subaru, which has equipped the Levorg model with the system, boasts.
Other brands, such as the Fiat, Jeep, and also the Range Rover, are equipped with separate modes that adjust engine operation, response to gas, brakes and gearbox (in the Jeep, combined in this way, there are up to 12 different systems) so that the car – with Snow mode enabled (snow) – maintained maximum traction and was able to run without any problems.

Intelligent power distribution – All-wheel drive

Intelligent power distribution - BMW 740Le xDrive - Motor Show in Poznan (2017)Intelligent power distribution - BMW M760Li xDrive - Motor Show Frankfurt, Germany (2017)Intelligent power distribution - BMW xDrive technologyIntelligent power distribution - BMW xDrive - Motor Show Frankfurt, Germany (2017)

Intelligent power distribution – All-wheel drive

Intelligent power distribution – In many cars, the drive is electronically controlled, which allows better separation of torque between wheels. Some systems, as in the case of the Haldex system, redirect drive to the second axis when the sensors catch the slip.
In others – as in the xDrive system in BMW – the drive hits both axles. In normal conditions, i.e. when the grip is good or very good, 40% of the drive is directed to the front and the rest to the rear – BMW thus behaves typically sports characteristics. Torque, through a multi-plate clutch with a suitable control computer. It can be easily and continuously distributed in xDrive between axles – up to 100%, only for two wheels.
In Subaru, the drive was driven with semi-axles driving the wheels, which are the same length. This “symmetry”, according to the Japanese, greatly improves the confidence of running on curves, especially on slippery surfaces.

Interior heating – Heat from battery or pump

Interior heating - Nissan Leaf - Paris Motor Show (2012)Interior heating - Nissan Leaf - DashboardInterior heating - Nissan Leaf - Wind farm daylightInterior heating - Nissan Leaf

Interior heating - Mercedes-Benz EQC - Motor Show in Paris (2018)Interior heating - Mercedes-Benz EQC - Paris Motor Show (2018)Interior heating - Mercedes-Benz EQC - DashboardInterior heating - Mercedes-Benz EQC - Motor Show, Paris, France (2018)

Interior heating – Heat from battery or pump

Interior heating – The car’s engine can be started remotely not only in the BMW 7 Series, where the key allows you to control the car on the touch screen. But also in Swedish Volvo produced for a cool climate. Pre-heating the cabin and cooling the windows will be easier in electric cars. At Nissan Leaf, or the latest Mercedes-Benz EQC, you do not need to run the engine for this purpose. Mercedes does not take energy to ventilate directly from the battery. The Germans have used a modern heat pump to reduce energy consumption.