Penguin galaxy – Estimated collisions, deformations

Penguin galaxy - Estimated collisions, deformations

Penguin galaxy – Estimated collisions, deformations

The Penguin Galaxy – Two cosmic telescopes, Spitzer and Hubble, took a photo of a caring penguin who looks as if he was looking after his egg. This rather unusual duo for space is in the constellation of Hydra. The “Penguin” (also known as NGC 2936), and its “egg” (NGC 2937), were originally galaxies with a spiral structure. However, under the influence of gravitational interaction, they were deformed. They will collide with each other and combine, which will result in the creation of many new star formation. No wonder that NGC 2936 and NGC 2937 were cataloged in:

Atlas of peculiar galaxies

– Halton Arp’s. In which there are arrangements of stars with the most original shapes.

Yueyaquan – Lake surrounded by desert dunes

Yueyaquan - Lake surrounded by desert dunes

Yueyaquan – Lake surrounded by desert dunes

Yueyaquan – literally means “a half-moon lake”. The reservoir really has a crescent shape of 200 m long and 50 m wide. According to the Chinese legend, long ago in the place where it is located, general Li Kuang’s soldiers were so thirsty that they did not have the strength to march on. Then the general struck the sand so much with the sword that water spurted out of him, which gradually formed a crescent-shaped lake. Yueyaquan for at least 2,000 years is a unique oasis, surrounded by the desert dunes of Takla Makan.

It is provided with an underground source, and moisture strengthens its banks, protecting the lake from covering with sand. In the oasis area the amount of precipitation is negligible, therefore the lake gradually dries up. According to measurements carried out in the 60’s. The average depth of the lake was then about 5 meters, while in the deepest place the bottom was 7 meters below the surface. In the 90’s, the depth of the lake was only 90 – 130 cm. Tourists come to the oasis on camels. In a hot and dry desert climate, staying at the lake is refreshing. The oasis is even more surprising in the winter. When the surrounding dunes are scattered with a thin layer of snow.

Hammurabi Codex – Set of laws of ancient Babylon

Hammurabi Codex - Set of laws of ancient BabylonHammurabi Codex - Museum in Louvre, Paris, FranceHammurabi Codex - Set of laws of ancient Babylon

Hammurabi Codex – Set of laws of ancient Babylon

Hammurabi Codex – It was a set of laws that were valid in Babylon. The text of the codex was engraved in the diorite with a cuneiform script in the Babylonian dialect of the Akkadian language. He covered all areas of life – inheritances, adoptions, thefts, medical and many more. With the exception of the king, society was divided into three layers: nobles, plebeians and slaves. In all the layers men were higher than women. Penalties were performed according to the “eye for an eye” principle – if someone damaged the eye of a Babylonian nobleman, he was deprived of his eye. However, when a nobleman who damaged the plebeian’s eye was a nobleman, he was only fined. Robbing the house during a fire was punished with burning, while adultery resulted in throwing connected lovers into the river.

Kayan tribe women – Secret of women giraffes

Kayan tribe women - Young girl giraffeKayan tribe women - Woman giraffeKayan tribe women - Young woman giraffeKayan tribe women - Women with rings on necksKayan tribe women - Women giraffes with childrenKayan tribe women - Women with elongated necks

Kayan tribe women – Secret of women giraffes

Kayan tribe women – In northern Thailand, in the province of Mae Hong Son in mountain villages, you can meet the so-called giraffe women from the Kayan tribe. They wear brass coils of thick wire on the necks, weighing about 10 kg. The first hoops are assumed for girls at the age of 5, and more are added successively. The spiral rests on the shoulders and puts pressure on the collarbones, creating the illusion of the elongated neck. This is really just an illusion, because the necks of women are of normal length. The spiral can be removed, and women sometimes do it, but not for long. Because the flaccid muscles of the neck make it impossible to keep the head without support. The custom of establishing a spiral is very old, the first mention comes from the 11th century. They are associated with the legend of the first woman Kayan, who was the daughter of a sea dragon.

Tungsten – Developed in plastic form in 20th century

Tungsten - Developed in plastic form in 20th century

Tungsten – Developed in plastic form in 20th century

Tungsten – At the beginning of the 20th century. Team of engineers from the American conglomerate General Electric developed a plastic tungsten. Which rapidly replaced metal fibers in classic light bulbs. The extraction and production of tungsten quickly increased. Many other applications for this metal were found, for example, for the production of anti-tank missiles or cemented carbide, i.e. popular widya. In less than 20 years, tungsten has shifted from the “interesting but useless” column. To the group of the most important industrial materials.

Minor metals – Breakthrough in perception of metals

Minor metals - Metal element from Late Bronze AgeMinor metals - Manufacturing opportunities in the state of Washington, USA, 1918

Minor metals – Breakthrough in perception of metals

Minor metals – Even before the World War II, many metals were known for which there was no practical use. It belonged to a kind of laboratory curiosities, obtained in a small amount and at enormous cost. It was so-called minor metals (rare metals) – unlike basic metals, which has been used en masse, the industry did not know how to use them. In those days, it was all the same, how rarely these metals occur in nature. It was not mined because it wasn’t needed for anything. A classic example of minority metals was nickel, up to the time when in 1919 stainless steel began to be manufactured. Then nickel became a very valued element.

Technological metals – Term introduced in 2007

Technological metals - Jack Lifton

Technological metals – Term introduced in 2007

Technological metals – A concept that is relatively new, in contrast to the actual use of metals in science and industry. The date in 2007 was introduced by American chemist and physicist Jack Lifton. Since then, it is often used in industry. Generally, you can say that the tech. metals are basically precious metals and those that are necessary for the production of hi-tech devices and engineering systems. This category includes:

  • commercial production of miniature electronic devices
  • advanced military systems
  • generating electricity using alternative sources, for example solar panels or wind turbines
  • electricity storage using batteries and cells.

There are of course a lot of other uses of these elements. Almost all technological metals are a by-product of the treatment of basic metals (except for precious and lithium).

Michael Calce – He worked on network as Mafiaboy

Michael Calce - He worked on network as MafiaboyMichael Calce - He worked on network as Mafiaboy

Michael Calce – He worked on network as Mafiaboy

Michael Calce – born 1984, Montreal, Canada. Nickname: “Mafiaboy.” He became a hacker thanks to dating sites. During puberty, he spent a lot of time on web chats. When he started using harsher words, the moderator blocked his access several times. Michael was so afflicted that he learned to download various programs and soon he could block others in chat rooms by means of various applications.

He was famous for the failure of one of the most stable portals – Yahoo. When he boasted about it in the hacker forum, nobody believed him. His next “trophy” were the pages of CNN, which in a few hours ceased to work. He also attacked eBay, Amazon and Dell. Losses that he caused were valued at 1.2 billion dollars. Mafiaboy was arrested and sentenced to 8 months in prison.

Boris Floricic – German hacker died mysterious death

Boris Floricic - German hacker died mysterious deathBoris Floricic - German hacker died mysterious death

Boris Floricic – German hacker died mysterious death

Boris Floricic – born 8.06.1972, West Berlin, Germany. In the hacker’s underground he was known under the pseudonym: “Tron”. He was fascinated by technology from an early age. Unlike others, he did not mean money, but to reveal the shortcomings of computer systems. In his diploma thesis he dealt with the so-called cryptophone – a device used to encrypt the voice – which he did not manage to finish. He could independently make a phone card and a SIM card reader.

He made attacks on pay TV channels and telephone companies. In October 1998, Floricic was lost in unexplained circumstances. Five days later he was found dead in a park in Berlin. Hanged on the trouser belt wrapped around the neck. It was found that it was suicide, but family and friends have big doubts. They argue that Boris could have been murdered because of his hacker activity and information about his voice encryption.

Julian Assange – WikiLeaks spokesman, chief editor

Julian Assange - WikiLeaks spokesman, chief editor

Julian Assange – WikiLeaks spokesman, chief editor

Julian Assange – born 7.03.1971, Townsville, Australia. Nickname: “Mendax”. J.Assange became a hacker at the age of 11. He participated in the creation of Rubberhose software, which was to protect the data of persecuted dissidents after their arrest. The protection system consisted in the fact that the encrypted data could not be distinguished from accidental noise.

Assange allegedly broke into an account in one of the banks, but it has never been proved.

In 2006, Asssange became famous for the creation of WikiLeaks websites, on which he published a lot of classified information, mainly from the US government. The documents concerned, for example, the war in Afghanistan, Iraq, Guantanamo prison. He received several awards for journalists for his work.